The following is the beginning of my attempt to collate the MAG rules on guns and gunplay, since the topic is both involved and all over the books.
Feel free to leave critical feedback and disagree. Your remarks may be taken into consideration, but ultimately, this article will reflect a combination of thorough citation and my opinion on how I would use the rules-as-written as a Narrator.
For the Player
Acquire a weapon
Standard firearms are available as props, and can be purchased using a Resources action. Detailed descriptions for standard firearms begin on Alloy of Law(AoL) page 112, and the statistics table is broken across pages 115-116. Three other firearms are described on Masks of the Past(MotP) pages 76-77. Some Narrators enjoy making their own additions.
All props are "permanent" items. If you lose or damage one, you will have a fully functional one after the next Long Breather, unless your Narrator says otherwise (MAG p109). You are also free to swap out props during any Long Breather, and you can get more props by increasing your Resources score or by selecting certain Stunts (MAG p109).
In addition to standard firearms, there are customizations that can be added to firearms. These are not available as starting props unless you have the appropriate gunsmithing stunt (AoL p97, p138). Any firearm may have up to three customizations applied (AoL p116, p141). Your Narrator may restrict which customizations are available from NPC supplied firearms. The detailed list of customizations is found on AoL pages 117-119, with the tables on 119-120.
Bows and arrows were available in the original release, and even then there was a lack of reference to "How many arrows?" MAG is focused on the narrative of the game, and disregards numbers when they don't add to the style of drama that the rules are targeting.
If you have a gun, you are assumed to be carrying enough ammo to reload throughout any given firefight (AoL p136). Most firefights won't expend more than a dozen shots anyway, and carrying two dozen shotgun shells isn't unrealistic (probably a little on the high end without a bandoleer, but not absurd). Carrying fifty or even one hundred 22mm rounds for a pistol is quite easy by comparison.
On the other side of the dramatic coin, each gun has a Capacity statistic, and you are expected to be tracking the number of rounds remaining in your weapon. Reloading in a conflict is a beat-length action (AoL p136).
Custom ammo is more valuable than standard ammo, and therefore has a maximum supply. It is not assumed to be preloaded unless your character is the type to do so, or you have the Invarian Chambers customization on your revolver. Custom ammo is not available for starting props unless you have the appropriate gunsmithing stunt (AoL p97, p138).
As a simplification, your custom ammo is assumed to match your available gun(s) unless the ammo rules say otherwise. Your Narrator may restrict which types of custom ammo are available from NPC suppliers. You can find the details on custom ammo on AoL pages 120-122, the table being on page 122.
Pull the trigger
Time to shoot at something. How do you know if you hit your target? This plays out in one of two ways:
1) Your Narrator tells you whether you hit or not, or
2) Your Narrator tells you to form a pool and roll to see if you succeeded.
Too simple? Remember that "If you can’t see much difficulty, or you can’t see much of a difference between success and failure, then it’s best to simply describe the action, assume it succeeds, and move on." (MAG p140) and that "The number of dice in your pool varies based on the action your Hero is attempting, and is determined by the Narrator based on the description of your character’s action." (also MAG p140)
What Attribute (or other value) will you be using to shoot a gun? The one your Narrator thinks is "most pivotal for the action" that you are describing (still MAG p140). As a player, you can influence this decision with your description of your action. Duck and roll firefights or snap shots are probably going to draw on your Physique. A calculated selection of targets from a stable position, or firing in anticipation of your foe's movement is more likely to be ruled as Wits. Targeting enabled by your magical senses (Iron lines, bronze pulses, enhanced hearing, etc.) might be formed on your Power rating. Your Narrator gets the final say (but if they are stuck on using one stat exclusively, feel free to remind them of these citations).
I have more about this reasoning in the Narrator's section later on.
Tactics, AoL pp133-136
Stunts and metals
Gunsmithing, AoL pp138-139, MotP pp71-72
Gunplay, AoL pp136-138, MotP pp70-71
Allomantic, AoL pp164-166
Feruchemical, AoL pp171-173
For the Narrator
Form a pool
A place to do whatever, out of character.
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